Rahul Dravid

Full name Rahul Sharad Dravid
Born 11 January 1973 (age 39)
Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Nickname The Wall, Jammy, Mr. Dependable
Height 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m)
Batting style Right-handed
Bowling style Right arm off spin
Role Batsman, Wicketkeeper
International information
National side India
Test debut (cap 207) 20 June 1996 v England
Last Test 24 January 2012 v Australia
ODI debut (cap 339) 3 April 1996 v Sri Lanka
Last ODI 16 September 2011 v England
ODI shirt no. 19
Only T20I 31 August 2011 v England
Domestic team information
Years Team
1990–present Karnataka
2000 Kent
2003 Scotland
2008–2010 Royal Challengers Bangalore
2011–present Rajasthan Royals
Career statistics
Competition Test ODI FC LA
Matches 164 344 298 449
Runs scored 13,288 10,889 23,794 15,271
Batting average 52.31 39.16 55.33 42.30
100s/50s 36/63 12/83 68/117 21/112
Top score 270 153 270 153
Balls bowled 120 186 617 477
Wickets 1 4 5 4
Bowling average 39.00 42.50 54.60 105.25
5 wickets in innings 0 0 0 0
10 wickets in match 0 0 0 0
Best bowling 1/18 2/43 2/16 2/43
Catches/stumpings 210/0 196/14 353/1 233/17
Source: Cricinfo, 30 January 2012

Rahul Dravid (English pronunciation: /rɑːhuːl drɑːvɪd/ ( listen)); (born Rahul Sharad Dravid; 11 January 1973) is a former Indian cricketer, who captained the national Test and One Day International (ODI) cricket teams. Born in a Marathi family, he started playing cricket at the age of 12 and later represented the state team at the under-15, under-17 and under-19 levels. Popularly nicknamed “The Wall”, he has been described as one of the greatest batsmen in the history of cricket.[1][2][3] He was named one of the best five cricketers of the year by Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack in 2000[4] and received the Player of the Year and the Test Player of the Year awards at the inaugural ICC awards ceremony in 2004.[5] In December 2011, he became the first non-Australian cricketer to address at the Bradman Oration in Canberra.[6]

As of October 2012, Dravid is the third-highest run scorer in Test cricket, after Sachin Tendulkar and Ricky Ponting, and the third Indian cricketer to exceed 10,000 runs both in Tests and in ODIs.[7][8] Wisden ranked him the third greatest Test batsman of all time, after Don Bradman and Tendulkar. As of April 2009, he is the only cricketer to score a century in all ten Test-playing countries.[9] As of October 2012, he holds the record for the most number of catches taken by a player in Test cricket, with 210.[10]

In August 2011, after receiving an unexpected call to play in the ODI series against England, Dravid declared his retirement from ODIs as well as Twenty20 International (T20I), and in March 2012, he announced his retirement from international and first-class cricket. He appeared in the 2012 Indian Premier League as captain of the Rajasthan Royals.[11]

Rahul Dravid, along with Glenn McGrath were honoured during the seventh annual Bradman Awards function in Sydney on November 1, 2012.[12]


Personal life and domestic career

Dravid was born in a Maharashtrian Deshastha Brahmin family in Indore, Madhya Pradesh.[13] His family later moved to Bangalore, Karnataka, where he was raised.[14] Dravid’s father worked for a company that makes jams and preserves, giving rise to the later nickname Jammy. His mother, Pushpa, was a professor of Architecture at the University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (UVCE), Bangalore.[15] He has a younger brother, Vijay. Dravid did his schooling from St. Joseph’s Boys High School, Bangalore and earned a degree in commerce from St. Joseph’s College of Commerce, Bangalore.

Dravid started playing cricket at the age of 12, and represented Karnataka at the under-15, the under-17 and the under-19 levels.[16] Former cricketer Keki Tarapore first noticed Dravid’s talent while coaching at a summer camp in the Chinnaswamy Stadium.[17] Dravid scored a century for his school team. He also played as wicket-keeper, but later stopped keeping wicket on the advice of former Test players Gundappa Vishwanath, Roger Binny, Brijesh Patel and Tarapore.

Dravid made his Ranji Trophy debut in February 1991, while he was still attending college. Playing alongside future Indian teammates Anil Kumble and Javagal Srinath against Maharashtra in Pune, he scored 82 runs in the match, which ended in a draw.[18] His first full season was in 1991–92, when he scored two centuries and finished up with 380 runs at an average of 63.3,[19] getting selected for the South Zone cricket team in the Duleep Trophy.[20]

On 4 May 2003 he married Vijeta Pendharkar, a surgeon from Nagpur.[21] They have two children: Samit, born in 2005,[22] and Anvay, born in 2009.[23]

International career

1995–98: Beginnings

Dravid in action during a Test match

Dravid made his ODI debut in place of Vinod Kambli against Sri Lanka in the Singer Cup, which was held in in Singapore immediately after the 1996 World Cup. He scored only three runs before being dismissed by Muttiah Muralitharan. He lost his place on the team but regained it for the tour of England.

Dravid made his test debut at the same time as Sourav Ganguly in the second Test against England, as Sanjay Manjrekar was injured after the first Test. He scored 95 runs[24] and held his position on Manjrekar’s return for the third Test, scoring 84.[25] After a moderate performance in the home series against Australia and South Africa, Dravid was picked for the 1996–97 tour of South Africa. He batted at number 3 in the third Test in Johannesburg, scoring his maiden century with 148 runs in the first innings, followed by 81 runs in the second. The top score in each innings gained him the man of the match award.[26] He was then selected for the ODI team, making his first half-century against Pakistan in the 1996 Sahara Cup and scoring 90 runs in his tenth ODI innings.[27]

From early 1996 to mid-1998, Dravid played in an away series against the West Indies, home and away series against Sri Lanka and a home series against Australia, where he scored consistently, with 964 runs at an average of 56.7. He scored eleven fifties but no centuries.[citation needed] He scored his second century at the end of 1998 against Zimbabwe in a one-off[clarification needed] Test match, top-scoring both innings with scores of 148 and 44 respectively. Despite his performance, India lost the game.[citation needed] During the 1999 tour of New Zealand, he scored centuries in both the innings of the third Test, with 190 and 103 not out respectively, ending the match in a draw. This made him the third Indian batsman, after Vijay Hazare and Sunil Gavaskar, to score a century in both innings of a Test match.[28][29] Dravid had a moderate season in the Indian subcontinent in early 1999, scoring 269 runs at an average of 38.42, with one century; he scored 239 runs at an average of 39.8, including a century, against New Zealand in late 1999.[citation needed] This was followed by a poor away series against Australia and another poor home series against South Africa, accumulating just 187 runs at an average of 18.7. He then scored 200 not out – his first double century – against Zimbabwe in Delhi, and followed with a second innings of 70 not out to help India win the match. It was the first time in 12 months that he had passed 50 runs. He scored 162 runs in the next Test, getting him 432 runs in the series, with an average of 432 runs.[citation needed]

Third batting position in ODIs and World Cup success

Dravid continued to bat at number 3 in ODIs and was selected in the Indian team for the 1999 World Cup, in which he was the highest scorer, with 461 runs from seven matches. Dravid is the only Indian to score two consecutive centuries in a World Cup: he scored 110 against Kenya and followed it with 145 against Sri Lanka in Taunton, in a match where he also kept wicket. He was involved in a partnership of 318 runs with Sourav Ganguly, then a world record for all forms of cricket. He was appointed vice-captain during 2003 World Cup, in which India reached the finals, playing as a wicket-keeper batsman to accommodate an additional batsman, a strategy that was well rewarded. Dravid was the captain during the 2007 World Cup in the West Indies, where India had an unsuccessful campaign.

After 2000

Dravid fielding during a Test match against Sri Lanka in Galle in 2008.

In the second Test of a three-match series against Australia at Eden Gardens in 2001, Dravid had a partnership with VVS Laxman which led to a comeback victory for India. India was following on, and they achieved a 376-run fifth wicket partnership in the second innings, Dravid scoring 180 and Laxman 281.[30] Later that year he scored 87 in the second innings against South Africa in Port Elizabeth, contributing to a draw.[31]

Dravid started to establish himself as one of the India’s premier Test batsmen in 2002. In the April, in first Test match of the series against the West Indies Georgetown, he scored 144 not out in the first innings after being hit by one of Mervyn Dillon‘s deliveries.[32] Later that year, he made four consecutive centuries, three against England and one against the West Indies. In August 2002, at Headingley Stadium, Leeds, in the third Test against England, he scored 148 in the first innings, leading to an Indian win[33] and making him man of the match. His 602-run total in the four-Test series against England also got him the man of the series award.

In 2003–2004 season, Dravid scored three double centuries: one each against New Zealand, Australia and Pakistan. In the first innings of the second Test against Australia at Adelaide, India reached 85–4 in reply to Australia’s 556, when Dravid and Laxsman made 303 for the fifth wicket. Laxman was dismissed for 148 and Dravid went on make 233, at that time the highest score by an Indian batsman outside India. He made 72 not out in the second innings, and India won.[34] Dravid scored 619 runs in the four-match series against Australia with an average of 103.16, winning the man of the series award. During the later part of the season, in Ganguly’s absence, Dravid led India to its first test victory over Pakistan at their home[clarification needed] in the first test match at Multan Cricket Stadium. At Rawalpindi, in the third and final match of the series, Dravid made 270 runs, helping India to win the series.[35] During India’s unsuccessful tour of England in 2011, in which their 4-0 loss cost them the top rank in Test cricket, Dravid made three centuries.

2011 Tour of England

Having regained his form on the tour to West Indies, where he scored a match-winning hundred in Sabina park, Jamaica, Dravid then toured England in what was billed as the series which would decide the World No. 1 ranking in tests. It would later be hailed as one of his greatest series performances by experts. In the first test at Lord’s, in reply to England’s 474,Dravid scored an unbeaten 103, his first hundred at the ground where he debuted in 1996. He received scant support from his teammates as India were bowled out for 286 and lost the test.[36] The 2nd test at Trentbridge,Nottingham again saw Dravid in brilliant form. Sent out to open the batting in place of an injured Gautam Gambhir, he scored his second successive hundred. His 117 though, again came in a losing cause, as a collapse of 6 wickets for 21 runs in the first innings led to a massive defeat by 319 runs.[37] Dravid failed in both innings in the third test at Birmingham, as India lost by an innings and 242 runs, one of the heaviest defeats in their history.[38] However, he came back brilliantly in the fourth and final match at The Oval. Again opening the batting in place of Gambhir, he scored an unbeaten 146 out of India’s total of 300, carrying his bat through the innings. Once again, though, his efforts were in vain as India lost the match, completing a 0-4 whitewash.[39] In all, he scored 461 runs in the four matches at an average of 76.83 with three hundreds. He accounted for over 26% of India’s runs in the series and was named India’s man of the series by England coach Andy Flower. His performance in the series was met with widespread admiration and was hailed by some as one of his finest ever series [40][41]


Rahul Dravid was dropped from the ODI team in 2009, but was selected again for an ODI series in England in 2011, surprising even Dravid himself since, although he had not officially retired from ODI cricket, he had not expected to be recalled.[42][43][44] After being selected, he announced that he would retire from ODI cricket after the series.[42] He played his last ODI innings against England at Sophia Gardens, Cardiff, on 16 September 2011, scoring 69 runs from 79 balls before being bowled by Graeme Swann.[45] His last limited-overs international match was his debut T20I match; he announced his retirement before playing his first T20I match.[46]

Dravid’s results in international matches
Matches Won Lost Drawn Tied No result
Test[47] 164 56 49 59 0
ODI[48] 344 160 165 2 17
T20I[49] 1 1

Dravid announced his retirement from Test and domestic cricket on 9 March 2012, after the 2011-12 tour of Australia, but he said he would captain the Rajasthan Royals in the 2012 Indian Premier League. He was the second-highest run scorer and had taken the highest number of catches in Test cricket at the time of his retirement.[50]

Playing style

Dravid is known for his technique, and had been one of the best batsmen for the Indian cricket team. In the beginning, he was known as a defensive batsman who should be confined to Test cricket, and was dropped from the ODI squad due to a low strike rate. However in a period of his career, he began consistently scoring runs in ODIs as well, earning him the award of ICC Player of the year award. His nickname of ‘The Wall’ in Reebok advertisements is now used as his nickname. Dravid has scored 36 centuries in Test cricket at an average of 53.19; this included five double centuries. In one-dayers, he has an average of 39.49, and a strike rate of 71.22. He is one of the few Indians whom’s Test average is better at away than at home, averaging almost five runs more in foreign pitches.[51] As of 23 September 2010, Dravid’s Test average in abroad is 55.53, and his Test average at home is 50.76;[51] his ODI average in foreign is 37.93[52] and his ODI average at home is 43.11.[53] Taking those matches in consideration that were won by India, Dravid averages 66.34 runs in Tests[54] and 50.69 runs in ODIs.[55]

Dravid’s sole Test wicket was of Ridley Jacobs in the fourth Test match against the West Indies during the 2001–2002 series. While he has no pretensions to being a bowler, Dravid often kept wicket for India in ODIs. Dravid is now a specialist batsman, averaging 63.51 in matches played since 1 January 2000.

Dravid was involved in two of the largest partnerships in ODIs: a 318-run partnership with Sourav Ganguly, the first pair to combine for a 300-run partnership, and then a 331-run partnership with Sachin Tendulkar, which is a world record. He also holds the record for the greatest number of innings played since debut before being dismissed for a duck. His highest scores in ODIs and Tests are 153 and 270 respectively. Each of his five double centuries in Tests was a higher score than his previous double century (200*, 217, 222, 233, 270).

Also, Dravid is the current world record holder for the highest percentage of runs scored in matches won under a single captain, where the captain has won more than 20 Tests.[56] In the 21 Test matches India won under Ganguly’s captaincy, Dravid scored at a record average of 102.84 runs; scoring 2571 runs, with nine hundreds, three of them being double-centuries, and ten fifties in 32 innings. He contributed nearly 23% of the total runs scored by India in those 21 matches, which is almost one run out of every four runs the team scored.

An innings-by-innings breakdown of Dravid’s Test match batting career, showing runs scored (red bars with purple bars for not out) and the average of the last ten innings (blue line).

He was named one of the Wisden cricketers of the year in 2000. Though primarily a defensive batsman, Dravid scored 50 runs not out in 22 balls (a strike rate of 227.27) against New Zealand in Hyderabad on 15 November 2003, the second fastest 50 among Indian batsmen. Only Ajit Agarkar‘s 67 runs of 21 balls is faster than that of Dravid.

In 2004, Dravid was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India. On 7 September 2004, he was awarded the inaugural Player of the year award and the Test player of the year award by the International Cricket Council (ICC). On 18 March 2006, Dravid played his 100th Test against England in Mumbai.

In 2006, it was announced that he would remain captain of the Indian team up to the 2007 World Cup in the West Indies.

However after the series against England, he stepped down as the Indian captain due to personal reasons. MS Dhoni took over as ODI captain, whereas Anil Kumble replaced him in test matches.

In 2007, he was dropped from the Indian ODI Squad following poor series against Australia. Dravid went back to play for Karnataka in the Ranji Trophy, scoring 218 runs against Mumbai.

In 2008, he made 93 runs in the first innings of the Perth test, the highest score of the match, to help India win and make the series 1–2. However, he was ignored by selectors for the subsequent one-day tri-series.

After a barren run in Test matches in 2008, Dravid came under increasing media pressure to retire or be dropped. In the Second Test against England in Mohali, he scored 136 runs, putting on a triple-century stand with Gautam Gambhir.

After reaching 10,000 test runs milestone, he said,”It’s a proud moment for sure. For me, growing up, I dreamt of playing for India. When I look back, I probably exceeded my expectations with what I have done over the last 10 to 12 years. I never had an ambition to do it because I never believed – it is just a reflection of my longevity in the game.”[57]

Dravid is also one of the two batsmen to score 10,000 runs at a single batting position and is the third highest run scorer in Test Cricket, next to Tendulkar and Ponting.


Ball-tampering incident

In January 2004, Dravid was found guilty of ball tampering during an ODI with Zimbabwe. Match referee Clive Lloyd adjudged the application of an energy sweet to the ball as a deliberate offence, although Dravid himself denied this was his intent.[58] Lloyd emphasised that television footage caught Dravid putting a lozenge on the ball during the Zimbabwean innings on Tuesday night at the Gabba.[58] According to the ICC’s Code of Conduct, players are not allowed to apply substances to the ball other than sweat and saliva.[58] Dravid was fined half of his match fee.[58]

Indian coach John Wright came out in defence of Dravid, stating that “It was an innocent mistake”. Wright argued that Dravid had been trying to apply saliva to the ball when parts of a losenge he had been chewing stuck to the ball; Dravid then tried to wipe it off.[59] ICC regulations prevented Dravid from commenting about the issue, but former Indian captain Sourav Ganguly also stated that Dravid’s act was “just an accident”.[59]

Multan declaration

One of Dravid’s most debated decisions was taken in March 2004, when he was standing in as the captain for injured Sourav Ganguly. India’s first innings was declared at a point when Sachin Tendulkar was at 194 runs with 16 overs remaining on Day 2.[60] Rahul Dravid has had a mixed record when leading India in Tests. India lost the Karachi Test in 2006, giving Pakistan the series 1–0. However the loss could be put down to several Indian batsmen playing badly. In March 2006, India lost the Mumbai Test, giving England its first Test victory in India since 1985, enabling it to draw the series 1–1. The defeat in Mumbai was arguably the result of Dravid’s decision to bowl first on a flat dry pitch, which later deteriorated and ended with an Indian collapse in the run chase. Coincidentally, it was Dravid’s 100th test match in which the Indians were all out for 100 runs in the second innings. He was criticized by Vijay Mallya for not picking the team with right balance after his then IPL team Royal Challengers Bangalore finished seventh out of the eight teams that participated in the 2008 season.[61] After India failed to qualify for the final of the DLF Cup, Dravid, the skipper, was criticized by former all-rounder Ravi Shastri who said that he was not assertive enough and let Greg Chappell make too many decisions.[62] When asked for a response, Dravid said that Shastri, while a ‘fair critic’, was ‘not privy’ to the internal decision-making process of the team.[63]

Captaincy Record

Test Matches

Table: Results by opposition in Tests[64]
Opposition Span Matches Won Lost Tied Draw
 Australia 2004-2004 2 1 1 0 0
 Bangladesh 2007-2007 2 1 0 0 1
 England 2006–2007 6 2 1 0 3
 New Zealand 2003-2003 1 0 0 0 1
 Pakistan 2004–2006 5 1 2 0 2
 South Africa 2006–2007 3 1 2 0 0
 Sri Lanka 2005-2005 2 1 0 0 1
 West Indies 2006-2006 4 1 0 0 3
Total 2003-2007 25 8 6 0 11

One Day Internationals

Table: Results by opposition in ODIs[65][66]
Opposition Matches Won Lost Tied NR
 Australia 6 1 4 0 1
 Bangladesh 3 2 1 0 0
 Bermuda 1 1 0 0 0
 England 13 9 4 0 0
 New Zealand 2 0 1 0 1
 Pakistan 9 5 4 0 0
 Scotland 1 1 0 0 0
 South Africa 9 4 5 0 0
 Sri Lanka 16 8 6 0 2
 West Indies 16 8 8 0 0
 Zimbabwe 3 3 0 0 0
Total 79 42 33 0 4



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